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  Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts

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PostSubject: Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts   Sat Jul 02, 2011 12:05 pm


Islaam:
Its Foundations And Concepts






By
Dr. Muhammad bin Abdullaah As-Suhaym


Translated by
Abdur-Raafi Adewale Imaam


Under The Supervision of
Translation and Publication Division,
Islaamic Propagation And Education Committee,
Muslim World League
Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah
Tel. 8150133, 8150144

In the name of Allaah, the Gracious, the Merciful

Translator's note:
All praise is due to Allaah May peace and blessings be upon the Messenger, his household and companions.
This book is undoubtedly a commendable attempt at showing the beauties of Islaam to mankind, drawing a comparison between this great religion and other world religions in spiritual, moral, social and intellectual aspects and acquainting mankind with its principles and fundamentals in a logical, unambiguous, convincing frank but gracious manner.
We would however like to call the attention of the reader to some points as regards the translation of some of the quotes and foreign names in this book. The author quoted some passages from the Bible and other books which are not originally Arabic. Though we believe that the proper academic method in translating these passages is to refer to their original sources since most of them are in English, we could not however do so because of their unavailability to the translator. It is therefore hoped that, translation of the passages rendered here are as close as possible in meaning, to the original texts.
As for the names of some authors mentioned in the Book in Arabic letters, we exerted efforts to know the correct spelling of these names in their original languages. But due to the fact that the author quoted excerpts from their books from secondary sources which are in Arabic, we could not have access to the original books; hence the names were transliterated from Arabic.
Equally, the names of foreign references mentioned in this book in English may not be the exact names given by their various authors. Most of these are translated from Arabic.
May Allaah make this book beneficial for all and reward its author abundantly in this world and the Hereafter.

Abdur-Raafi Adewale Imaam.

Author's preface
All praise is due to Allaah. We praise Him, seek for His assistance and forgiveness and we seek refuge with Him from evils of our souls and our misdeeds. No one can mislead whosoever Allaah guides and none can guide whosoever Allaah causes to go astray.
I testify that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allaah alone. He has no partner. I also testify that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.
Allaah sent Messengers to mankind in order that people may not have any plea against Him after He has sent these Messengers. He also revealed Books as guidance, mercy, light and healing.
In the past, Messengers were especially sent to their people and entrusted with the preservation of their book. That was why their writings became forgotten and their laws became altered, because they were sent tot a specific nation on a limited period.
Thereafter, Allaah chose His Prophet Muhammad and made him the last of all prophets and Messengers. He says,
"Muhammad is not the father of anyone among you, but he is the Messenger of Allaah and the last (end) of the Prophets."
Allaah honoured him with the best Revealed Book which is the glorious Qur'aan; He took it upon Himself to preserve it and did not assign the obligation of its preservation to any of His creatures. He says:
"Verily, We it is Who have sent down the Dhikr (i.e., Qur'aan) and surely, We will guard it (from corruption)."
He also makes the Law of Muhammad the lasting one till the Day of Resurrection. He explained that the perpetuity of his Law necessitates the belief in it, calling unto it and being patient with it. Hence the path of the Prophet and his followers is that of calling to the way of Allaah with sure knowledge. While making this manhaj clear, Allaah says:
"Say (O Muhammad): This is my way; I invite unto Allaah with sure knowledge, I and whosoever follows me. And Glorified and Exalted be Allaah. And I am not of the polytheists."
Allaah commanded the Prophet to bear whatever harm he suffered in the cause of Allaah with patience and says:
"Therefore be patient (O Muhammad) as did the Messengers of strong will."
He also enjoins patience on Muslims,
"O you who believe! Endure and be more patient and guard (your territory by stationing army units permanently at the places from where the enemy can attack you) and fear Allaah, so that you may be successful."
In accordance with this gracious Divine Way, I write this book to invite people to the religion of Allaah, deriving guidance in doing so, from the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger. I briefly explained herein the story of the creation of the Universe, the creation of man and how he was favoured by sending Messengers to him and situation of past religions. I afterwards made an introduction to Islaam as per its meaning and pillars. So, whoever is looking for guidance will find its evidences therein, whoever is looking for salvation may find that I have explained the way to it in this book, whoever desires to follow the track of the Prophets, Messengers and righteous people will find their path herein while those who turn away from their way only befools themselves and take to the straying path.
It is a matter of fact that adherents of each religion call others to it and believe that truth only abide in their religion. It is also a fact that adherents of each belief call others to follow their leader and extol him. As for Muslim, he does not call people to follow his ideology. His religion is the religion of Allaah with which He is pleased. Allaah says:
"Truly, the religion with Allaah is Islaam"
He also does not call people to glorify a human being, for all human beings are equal in the Religion of Allaah; nothing distinguishes one from another except piety. A Muslim rather calls people to follow the path of their Lord, to believe in His Messengers and follow His Law which He revealed to the last of His Messengers Muhammad and which He commanded him to convey to all mankind.
It's on this account that I wrote this book in order to call people to the Religion of Allaah which He is pleased with and with which He sent His Last Messenger in order to guide those who are looking for guidance and happiness. By Allaah! No human being can have real happiness except through this religion and none can have rest of mind except by believing that Allaah is the only Lord (worthy of worship), that Muhammad is His Messenger and that Islaam is the only acceptable religion of Allaah.
Thousands of those who embraced Islaam have testified that they did not know real life until after they embraced Islaam and that they did never tasted happiness except under the shade of Islaam. Since it is a fact that every human being looks for happiness, peace of mind and truth, I prepare this work to help them achieve that. I pray that Allaah makes this work purely for His sake and let it be well-accepted and make it one of those righteous deeds that will benefit its doer in this world and the next.
I give permission to translate and publish this book in any language to whoever may want to do so with a condition that the person act honestly in translating it and to do me a favour by sending me a copy in order to avoid unnecessary repetition of efforts.
I equally request from whoever has any observation or correction either on the Arabic text of this Book or any of its translated versions to kindly send it to me through the below-mentioned address.
All praise is due to Allaah firstly and lastly, outwardly and inwardly. All praise is due to Him publicly and secretly. All praise is due to Him in the beginning and the end. All praise is due to him as much as can fill the heavens and the earth and whatever else that Our Lord may wish. May Allaah bestow peace and much blessing on our Prophet Muhammad, his companions and all those who follow his path till the day of reckoning.
The author,
Dr. Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Saalih As-Suhiem
Riyadh 13-10-1420
P. o. Box 261032 Riyadh 1342 and
P. o. Box 6249 Riyadh 11442

Where is the Way?
When man grows and starts understanding things, many questions come to his mind like: Where am I from? What will be my end? Who created me and the universe around me? Who owns and controls this universe? And other questions like these.
However, he is unable to provide himself with answers to these questions. Even modern science is not capable of providing answers to them because these issues fall within religious domains. That is why there are numerous narrations and different superstitions and tales about them that only add to man's confusion and distress. It is impossible for man to get a satisfying answer to these questions unless he is guided by Allaah to the true religion that is capable of providing final decision on these and similar issues; for, these issues are among the divine secrets that only the true religion can give correct and accurate answers to and that is the only religion that Allaah revealed to His Prophets and Messengers. It is then incumbent upon man to learn the true religion and have belief in it in order to have his confusion and doubts removed and in order to be guided to the Straight Path.
I invite you to follow the Straight Path of Allaah and I present to you some evidences and proofs that you may carefully and patiently reflect on.

EXISTENCE OF ALLAAH, HIS LORDSHIP (OVER ALL CREATION), HIS ONENESS AND HIS BEING THE ONLY GOD WORTHY OF WORSHIP

Many people do worship man-made deities like trees, stones and even human beings; that is why the Jews and idolaters asked the Messenger of Allaah about the characteristics of his Lord. In reply to this question Allaah revealed:
"Say (O Muhammad): He is Allaah, (the) One, Allaah, the Self-Sufficient Master (Whom all creatures need, He neither eats nor drinks). He begets not nor is He begotten. And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him."
He also says:
"Indeed your Lord is Allaah Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days and then He Istawa (rose over) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty). He brings night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly, and (He created) the sun, the moon, the stars subjected to His Command. Blessed be Allaah, the Lord of all the world!"
He also says:
"Allaah is He, Who raised the heaven without pillars that you can see. Then He Istawa (rose above) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty). He has subjected the sun and the moon (to continue going round)! Each running( its course) for a term appointed. He regulates all affairs, explaining the Aayaat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) in detail, that you may believe with certainty in the meeting with your Lord. And it is He who spread out the earth, and placed therein firm mountains and rivers and of every kind of fruits He made in pairs. He brings the night as a cover over the day…" until He says: "Allaah knows what every female bears and how much the womb falls short (of their time or number) or exceed. Everything with Him is in due proportion. All-Knower of the unseen and the seen, the Most Great, the Most-High."3
Allaah also says:
"Say (O Muhammad): Who is the Lord of the heavens and the earth? Say: (It is) Allaah. Say: Have you then taken (for worship) protectors other than Him, such as have no power either for benefit or for harm to themselves? Say: Is the blind equal to the one who sees? Or darkness equal to light? Or do they assign Allaah partners who created the like of His creation, so that the creation (which they made and His creation) seemed alike to them? Say: Allaah is the Creator of all things. He is the One, the Irresistible."
While establishing for mankind His signs as evidences and proofs, He says:
“And from among His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Prostrate not to the sun nor the moon, but prostrate to Allaah who created them, if you really worship Him. But if they are too proud (to do so), then those who are with your Lord (angels) glorify Him night and day, and never are they tired. And among His signs (in this), that you see the earth barren, but when We send down water (rain) to it, it is stirred to life and growth (of vegetations). Verily, He Who gives it life, sure is Able to give life to the dead (on the Day of Resurrection). Indeed He is Able to do all things.”
He also says:
“And among His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the differences of your languages and colours. Verily, in that are indeed signs for men of sound knowledge. And among His signs are the sleep that you take by night and by day…”
While describing Himself with attributes of beauty and perfection He says:
“Allaah! None has the right to be worshipped but He. The Ever-Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists. Neither slumber nor sleep overtakes Him. To Him belongs whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission? He knows what happens to them (His creatures) in this world and what will happen to them in the hereafter. And they will never compass anything of His knowledge except that which He wills.”
He also says:
“The Forgiver of sins, the Acceptor of repentance, the Stern in punishment, the Bestower (of favours). None has the right to be worshipped but He. To Him is the final return.”
He – may His praise be exalted- also says:
“He is Allaah, besides Whom none has the right to be worshipped, the King, the Holy, the One free from all defects, the Giver of security, the Watcher over His creatures, the All-Mighty, the Compeller, the Supreme. Glory be to Allaah! (High is He) above all that they associate as partners with Him.”
This wise and Omnipotent Lord who made himself known to His slaves and established for them His signs and proofs and described Himself with attributes of perfection had prophetic ordainments, human wisdom and nature testify to His existence, to His Lordship and being the only one having the right to be worshipped. I will –God willing- show that to you in the following pages.
As for proofs of His existence and Lordship, they are:
ONE: CREATION OF THIS UNIVERSE AND ITS WONDERFUL DESIGN
O man! All this universe that surrounds you; the heavens, the stars, the galaxies and the earth that is spread in which there are neighbouring tracts out of which different plants grow bearing all fruits, and on which you find all creatures in pairs… this universe did not create itself and could never create itself. It must then have a creator. Who then is that creator who created it in this wonderful design and perfection and made it a sign for those who can see save Allaah the One, the Subduer Whom there is no Lord or deity worthy of worship beside Him. He says:
“Were they created by nothing or were they themselves the creators? Or did they create the heavens and the earth? Nay, but they have no firm belief.”
These two verses imply three questions:
1- Were they created from nothing?
2- Did they create themselves?
3- Did they create the heavens and the earth?
If their creation was not accidental and they had not created themselves or created the heavens and the earth; it should then be affirmed that there exists a creator who created them as well as the heavens and the earth. That Creator is Allaah, the One, the Subduer.
TWO: THE NATURE
All creatures are naturally inclined to believe in the existence of the Creator; to affirm that He is greater and mightier than all things. This inclination is more well-rooted in the nature than elementary mathematics and does not need to be proved by any evidence except for him who has an abnormal nature; a nature that has been exposed to circumstances that turn it away from what it should admit. Allaah says:
“That (Islaamic Monotheism) is the nature upon which Allaah has created mankind. Let there be no change in Allaah's (law of) creation. That is the straight religion.”
The Messenger of Allaah said: “Every child is born with natural inclination to Islaamic Monotheism and it is his parents who make him a Jew, a Christian or a Magian just as the animal gives birth to its young whole, wherein you find no mutilation.” Then Aboo Hurayrah (who is the narrator of this hadeeth) said: “Recite if you like (Allaah’s words): “That (Islaamic Monotheism) is the nature upon which Allaah has created mankind. Let there be no change in Allaah's (law of) creation. That is the straight religion.'”
He also said: “Verily, my Lord commanded me to teach you what you do not know of what He has taught me today: ‘All money that I endow a slave with is lawful (for him). I created my slaves naturally inclined to Islaamic Monotheism and it were the devils who came to them, led them away from their religion, made forbidden for them what I made lawful and enjoined on them to associate partners with Me in worship of which I did not send any proof.’ ”
THREE: CONSENSUS OF ALL PEOPLE
All past and modern nations are in consensus that this universe has a creator who is Allaah the Lord of all the worlds, that He is the Creator of the heavens and the earth and that He has no partner among His creatures as He does not have a partner in His Sovereignty.
No belief has ever been reported from any of the past nations that their false deities took part with Allaah in the creation of the heavens and the earth. Rather, they all believed that it was Allaah Who created them and their gods, that there was no creator or sustainer besides Him and that He alone owns the power to benefit or harm. Allaah informs us in the following verses of the idolaters affirmation of His Lordship and guardianship:
“If your were to ask them: ‘Who has created the heavens and the earth and subjected the sun and the moon?’ They will surely reply: ‘Allaah’. How then are they deviating (as polytheists and disbelievers)? Allaah enlarges the provision for whom He wills of His slaves and straightens it for whom (He wills). Verily, Allaah is the All-Knower of everything. If you were to ask them: ‘Who sends down water (rain) from the sky and gives life therewith to earth after its death?’ They will surely reply: ‘Allaah’. Say: ‘All the praises and thanks be to Allaah!’ Nay! Most of them have no sense.”
“And indeed if you ask them, ‘Who has created the heavens and the earth?’ They will surely say: ‘The All-Mighty, the All-Knower created them.’ ”
FOUR: THE REASON
Human reason inevitably confirms that this universe has a great Creator; for the sound reason agrees that this universe is a created thing that did not bring itself to being, hence, it must have an originator.
Also, man knows that he falls into crises and afflictions and when he is unable to prevent them or remove them, he faces the heavens with his heart and seeks for His Lord’s aid to remove his distress even though he may denounce his Lord and worship his idols in his normal days. This is an undisputable fact. Even the animal raises his head up and looks at the sky whenever it is visited by an affliction. The Almighty Allah informs us that man, whenever he is afflicted with harm, hastens to his Lord and asks Him to remove the harm. Allaah says,
“And when some hurt touches man, he cries to his Lord (Allaah Alone) turning to Him in repentance, but when He bestows a favour upon him from Himself, he forgets that for which he cried for before and he sets up rivals to Allaah.”
He also says about the idolaters:
“He it is Who enable you to travel through land and sea, till when you are in the ships and they sail with them with a favourable wind, and they are glad therein, then comes a stormy wind and the waves come to them from all sides and they think that they are circled therein, they invoke Allaah, making their faith pure for Him Alone, saying: ‘If You (Allaah) deliver us from this, we shall truly be of the grateful. But when He delivered them, behold! They rebel (disobey Allaah) in the earth wrongfully. O mankind! Your rebellion (disobedience to Allaah) is only against your own selves, - a brief enjoyment of this worldly life, then (in the end) unto Us is your return and We shall inform you that which you used to do.’ ”
He also says:
“And when a wave covers them like shades (i.e., like clouds or the mountains of seawater) they invoke Allaah, making their invocations for Him only. But when he brings them safe to land, there are among them those that stop in the middle (between belief and disbelief). But none denies Our Signs but every perfidious ungrateful.”
This Lord who brought this universe to existence, created man in the best form, embedded in his nature servitude and submission to Him, subjected human reason to His Lordship and His exclusive worthiness to be worshipped. It is Allaah Whom all nations unanimously testify to His guardianship… as He should inevitably be One in His Lordship and worthiness to be worshipped. As He has no partner in creating His creatures, He should also have no partner in His worthiness to be worshipped. There are numerous evidences for this,* some of which are:
1- There is only in this universe one God Who is the creator and the sustainers of all. None brings harm or benefit except Him. Had there been any other god besides Him, that god would have had his own work, creation and command and none of both would have allowed another to share the creation with him. Hence, one of them must have overpowered and subdued the other. In that case, the subdued could not have been a god and the Subduer should be the real God with whom none can share the right to be worshipped just as none shares with Him His guardianship and lordship. Allaah says:
“No son (or offspring or children) did Allaah beget, nor is there any god along with Him; (if there had been many gods), behold, each god would have taken away what he had created, and some would have tried to overcome others! Glorified be Allaah above all that they attribute to Him.”
2- None deserves to be worshipped but Allaah Who created the heavens and the earths; for, man seeks to gain the favour of the Lord Who brings him benefit and prevents harm, evils and calamities from him and none but the one who owns the heavens and the earth is capable of doing all these. Let those who are searching for the truth read: “Say (O Muhammad) (to those polytheists, pagans, etc.) ‘Call upon those whom you assert (to be associate gods) besides Allaah, they possess not even the weight of an atom (or small ant), - either in the heavens or on the earth nor have they any share in either, nor there is for Him any supporter from among them. Intercession with Him profits not, except for him whom He permits.’ ”
These verses and others sever heart’s affinity to other things besides Allaah through four factors:
One: That those whom the polytheists worship possess not even the weight of an atom with Allaah, and he who possesses not a weight of an atom cannot benefit nor harm and therefore, is not worthy of being worshipped or being taken as Allaah’s associate in worship. It is Allaah alone Who owns them and controls them.
Two: That they possess nothing in the heavens and the earth and they do not even have an atom weight of share in them.
Three: Allaah has no helper among His creatures. Rather, He is the One who helps them in what is of benefit for them and drives away from them what harms them. For, He completely has no need of them; it is they who are rather who are in absolute need of Him.
Four: That these so-called associates are not capable of interceding with Allaah on behalf of their followers and they will not even be given permission to do so. Allaah does not give permission to intercede except to His friends, and His friends also can not intercede except on behalf of the one whom Allaah is pleased with his sayings, deeds and belief.
3- Systematic arrangement and precise execution of the affairs of this universe is the strongest indication that its controller is one Lord, one (King), beside Whom there is no other creator. As it is impossible for this universe to have two creators, so it is impossible for it to have two Lords. Allaah says:
“Had there been therein (in the heavens and the earth) gods besides Allaah, then verily both would have been ruined.”
Had it been assumed that there was in the heaven and the earth another god besides Allaah, they would have been ruined. Because, had there been another god besides Allaah, both would need to be autocratic and have right of free disposal. That would have then lead to contention and fighting and the ruin of the heaven and the earth would have occurred as a result. It is impossible for the body to have two controlling souls; if that happens the body will be destroyed – how then can it be imagined that this universe which is greater, should have two lords?
4- Consensus of the Prophets and Messengers: All nations agree that the Prophets and Messengers are the wisest, most intelligent, best in morality, most sincere, most knowledgeable of what Allaah wants and the most rightly guided of all people, because, they received revelation from Allaah and conveyed it to people. And all Prophets and Messengers – right from Adam to the last Prophet who is Muhammad, peace be upon them all – have all called their peoples to the belief in Allaah and abstention from worshipping anything besides Him and that He is the only True Lord. Allaah says:
“And We did not send any Messenger before you (O Muhammad) but We inspired him saying: None has the right to be worshipped but I (Allaah), so worship Me (Alone).”
He also says about Nooh – Peace be upon him – that he told his people,
“That you worship none but Allaah, surely, I fear for you the torment of a painful Day.”
He – may He be glorified– also says about the last of all Messengers, Muhammad,
“Say (O Muhammad): It is revealed to me that your God is one God. Will you then submit to His Will (become Muslims and stop worshipping others besides Allaah)?”
This God is the One who wonderfully created the universe from naught; He created man in the best form and perfected his creation and impressed in his nature the affirmation of His Lordship and His exclusive right to be worshipped. He lets him have peace of mind through his submission to Him and following His Path and He ordained it on his soul not to be at rest until it surrenders to its Creator and be in continuous contact with Him. He also makes it impossible to contact with Him except through His Straight Path which the honourable Prophets conveyed. He gave man intelligence which only becomes upright and functions properly when he believes in Allaah, Glory be to Him.
When one has an upright nature, a peaceful soul and a believing heart, one achieves happiness, security and peace in this world and the hereafter. But when man refuses all that, he will live in the alleys of this world disorganised and divided among its gods, ignorant as to who can benefit him or prevent harm from him. It is in order that true faith may be established in the heart and the ugliness of disbelief may be exposed that Allaah makes a parable – for parables bring meanings closer to understanding. He makes a parable of a man whose affair is divided between numerous gods and a man who worships his Lord alone. He, may He be glorified, says,
“Allaah puts forth a similitude: a (slave) man belonging to many partners (like those who worship others along with Allaah) disputing with one another, and a (slave) man belonging to one master (like those who worship Allaah Alone). Are those two equal in comparison? All the praises and thanks be to Allaah! But most of them know not.”
Allaah likens the slave who is a polytheist to a slave who is owned by different associates and over whom they all contend with each other. He is divided among them and everyone of them directs him and assigns responsibilities to him. He is confused among them and is always unstable. He is unable to satisfy their different and contradicting desires that tear his energy and directions apart.
He also likens the slave who is a monotheist to a slave who is owned by a single master. He knows what his master wants and the assignments he gives him. He is thereby comfortable and settled on a clear path. Both of these two slaves cannot be equal. For, one submits to a single master and enjoys the pleasure of uprightness, knowledge and certainty and the other one submits to different and disputing masters and is thereby punished and distressed. He is not stable on a condition and cannot please even one of them let alone all of them.
After proofs on the existence of Allaah, His Lordship and His exclusive right to be worshipped have become clear, we should then acquaint ourselves with His creation of the universe and man and know His wisdom behind that.

CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE

This universe with its heavens, earth, stars, galaxies, seas, trees and all living things are created from non-existence by Allaah – the Glorified and Exalted. He says,
“Say (O Muhammad): Do you verily disbelieve in Him Who created the earth in two days and you set up rivals (in worship) with Him? That is Lord of the worlds. He placed therein (i.e., the earth) firm mountains from above it, and He blessed it, and measured therein its sustenance (for its dwellers) in four days equal (i.e., all these four ‘days’ are equal in the length of time) for all those who ask about (its creation). Then He rose over towards the heaven when it was smoke and said to it and to the earth, ‘Come both of you willingly and unwillingly!’ They both said, ‘We come, willingly.’ Then He completed and finished from the creation (as) seven heavens in two days and He made in each heaven its affair. And We adorned the nearest (lowest) heaven with lamps (stars) to be an adornment as well as to guard (from the devils by using them as missiles against them). Such is the decree of Him the All-Mighty, the All-Knower.”
He also says,
“Have not those who disbelieve know that the heavens and the earth were joined together as one united piece, then We parted them? And We have made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe? And We have placed on the earth firm mountains, lest it should shake with them, and We placed therein broad highways for them to pass through, that they may be guided. And We have made heaven a roof, safe and well-guarded. Yet, they turn away from its signs.”
Allaah created the universe for many great purposes. There are in every part of it great wisdom and dazzling signs. If you ponder over a single sign thereof, you will see wonders. Behold the wonders of the creation of Allaah in the plants in which almost every leaf, stem and fruit is full of benefit that human intellect cannot fully comprehend and understand its details. Behold the water courses of those tender and weak stems, which eyes can hardly see except by careful observation, how they are able to draw water from the bottom to the top and the water then moves in those courses according to their acceptability and capacities. It then breaks into particles that cannot be perceived by human eyes. Then behold, the fruit of a tree and how it moves from a stage to another like the invincible movement of the conditions of a foetus. You see a tree growing from a mere naked wood with no covering on it, then its Lord and Creator covers it with leaves in the most beautiful manner. He then brings out its fruit tender and weak after He has brought out its leaf in order to preserve it and make it like a clothing for that weak fruit so as to protect it against heat, cold and other harmful phenomena. He then provides sustenance for these fruits through their stems and water courses so that they can be nourished by that, as an infant is nourished by the milk of its mother. He then nurtures the fruits and develop them until they become completely ripe. He thereby brought out that delicious fruit out of that lifeless wooden-like particle.
When you look at the earth and how it was created, you will see that it is one of the greatest signs of its Creator. Allaah makes it a resting place and as a bed, and subjected it to His slaves. He makes their sustenance, provision and sources of livelihood there and created therein for them ways and paths so that they can move about to meet their needs. He fixed it firmly with mountains and makes them as pillars in order to protect it against shaking. He flattens it, extends it and spreads it, makes it a receptacle for the living that brings them together on its surface and makes it a receptacle for the dead that bring them together in its interior after their death. Its surface is a place of dwelling for the living and its interior is the place of abode for the dead.
Then look at its revolving orbit, with its sun, moon, stars and zodiacs and behold how it continuously revolves around this world till the end of time in this order and proper succession and see the differences in the night, day, seasons, heat and cold which are results of these wonderful movements; and the benefits they give to all kinds of animals and plants and all that exists on the earth.
Then reflect over the creation of the heaven and take another look at it; you will see that it is one of the greatest signs of Allaah in altitude, expansiveness and stability. There is no pillar underneath it and there is no suspender over it but held by the infinite power of Allaah which holds the heaven and the earth lest they fall asunder.
When you also look at this universe, the composition of its parts and its best arrangement – that show the perfect omnipotence of their Creator and His perfect knowledge, wisdom and grace – you will find that it is like a constructed edifice in which all its tools and requirements are provided. The heaven was erected with its roof raised above it; the earth made like a place of rest and a carpet for its dwellers; the sun and moon which are like lamps illuminate the earth; and the stars which are its lanterns and adornment give directions to the traveller in the paths of the universe. The jewels and minerals that are hidden in the earth like prepared treasures are all made for the purpose that best suits them. All kinds of plants and animals are also prepared for what they are good for. Some animals are good for riding, some are good for milking; some are good for food and some are better used as guards. And He made man their controller and like an authorised king above all of them.
If you also ponder over this universe either in every respect or in a part of it, you will see a lot of wonders. If you deeply reflect and you are sincere with yourself and free yourself from the noose of whims and caprices and blind imitation, you will know with certainty that this universe was created by the All-Wise, All-Powerful and All-Knower, Who measured it in the best manner and arranged it in the best form. You will also know with certainty that it is simply impossible that the Creator should be two; He is only One Lord beside Whom there is none other worthy of worship and that had there been any other god in the heavens and the earth, their affairs would have been corrupted, their order disrupted and their welfare broken down.
If you however insist on attributing the creation to others beside the Creator, what will you say of the mechanism that revolves around a river whose tools and composition have been perfected and excellently measured that the looker does not see any defect in it or its picture. This river is situated in the middle of a long garden in which there are different kinds of fruits that get their water from this river; and there is in this garden a caretaker who brings its disunited parts together and perfectly takes care of it so that nothing of it becomes defected and nothing of its fruits becomes decayed. This caretaker then portions out its parts to the outlets according to man’s needs and necessities, giving each group what it deserves and portioning it out in this way continuously.
Will you then say that all this happened without the hand of any creator, who has freedom of choice and is a planner? Will you say that the existence of that mechanism and garden is just accidental without any creator or planner? Can you imagine what your reason will tell you if all these were to come to being accidentally? Can you imagine as to where your reason will direct you and counsel you about?
The underlying reasons:
After all these reflections over the creation of the universe, we deem it fit to mention some of the reasons for which Allaah created these huge beings and astounding signs.
1. To subject them for man: When Allaah decreed to create a successor on this earth that would be worshipping him and inhabit the earth; He created all these things for him, that he might have an upright life and have his affairs of this life and that of his final abode put right for him. Allaah says,
“And He subjected to you all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth; it is all as a favour and kindness from Him.”
He also says,
“Allaah is He Who has created the heavens and the earth and sends down water (rain) from the sky, and thereby brought forth fruits as provisions for you; and He has made the ships to be of service to you, that they may sail through the sea by His Command; and He has made rivers (also) to be of service to you. And He has made sun and moon, both constantly pursuing their courses, to be of service to you; and He has made the night and the day, to be of service to you. And He gave you all of that you asked for, and if you count the Blessings of Allaah, never will you be able to count them. Verily, man is indeed an extreme wrong-doer, a disbeliever.”
2. To make the heavens and the earth and all that is in the universe proofs of Allaah's Lordship and signs of His Oneness. Because, the greatest thing in this life, is to affirm the Lordship of Allaah and His Oneness. And because of the fact that, it is the greatest matter, Allaah has established in its support greatest evidences and signs and proved it with the most convincing proofs. So, Allaah created the heavens, the earth and all other beings to make them evidences for that. That is why statements like, “Among His signs” are mentioned in the abundance like in the following verses.
“And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth.”
“And among His Signs is the sleep that you take by night and by day.”
“And among His Signs is that He shows you the lightning, by way of fear and hope.”
“And among His Signs is that the heavens and the earth stand by His Command.”
3. To make them evidences of the existence of the Day of Resurrection; since the life is two lives, a life of this world and a life of the hereafter and the life of the hereafter is the real life. Allaah says,
“And this life of the world is only amusement and play! Verily, the home of the hereafter – that is the life indeed (i.e., the eternal life that will never end), if they but knew.”
This is because the home of the hereafter is the home of recompense and reckoning and there is there eternal bliss for those who deserve it and eternal torment for those who deserve it. Since man cannot reach that home except after he dies and is resurrected; its existence is denied by those whose relationship with their Lord has been cut, whose nature has suffered a relapse and whose sense of reasoning has been damaged. It is because of this that Allaah established proofs and evidences in order that souls might believe and hearts might have conviction; for reproduction of the soul is much easier than its first creation and the creation of the heavens and the earth is greater than the reproduction of man. Allaah says,

“And He it is Who originates the creation, then will repeat it (after it has been perished) and this is easier for Him.”
He also says,
“The creation of the heavens and the earth is indeed greater than the creation of mankind, yet most of mankind know not.”
He also says,
“Allaah is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars that you can see. Then, He rose above the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty). He has subjected the sun and the moon (to continue going round)! Each running (its course) for a time appointed. He regulates all affairs, explaining the proofs in detail, that you may believe with certainty in the meeting with your Lord.”
After all this O man! If all this universe has been subjected to you and all its signs and proofs have been shown to you, you will testify that there is no Lord worthy of worship except Allaah Alone Who has no partner. When you have known that your resurrection and life after death is easier than the creation of the heavens and the earth, that you shall meet your Lord Who will call you to account for your deeds and you have known that all this universe worships its Lord that all His creatures glorify their Lord with praises as confirmed by Allaah,
“Whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth glorifies Allaah, the King (of everything), the Holy, the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.”
That, they all prostrate for His Majesty as He says,
“See you not that to Allaah prostrates whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the earth, and the sun, and the moon and the stars, and the mountains, and the trees, and the moving living creatures and many of mankind? But there are many (men) on whom the punishment is justified. And whomsoever Allaah disgraces none can honour him. Verily, Allaah does what He wills.”
Even these beings worship their Lord in a way that suits them as explained by Allaah in this verse,
“See you not that Allaah, He it is Whom glorify whatsoever is in the heavens and the earth, and the birds with wings out-spread (in flight). Of each one He knows indeed his prayer and his glorification [for every one knows his prayer and his glorification].”
If your whole body does actually work in order according to the decree of Allaah and His regulation: the heart, the lungs, the liver and all other parts of the body submit and surrender to their Lord… Will your optional decision after all this be between belief in your Lord and disbelief in Him? Will your decision be antipathy towards and deviation from this blessed path of the world around you and even of your body?
Actually, the completely sane man will consider himself far above choosing antipathy and deviation in the vastness of this great universe.

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